13.10.19

All About Common Skin Disorders

Different Common Skin Disorders

Skin disorders vary greatly in symptoms and severity. They can be permanent or temporary ,  painful or painless . Some have genetic causes , while others may be situational causes . Some skin conditions are minor and on the other side others can be life-threatening.

Although most skin disorders are minor, others may indicate a more serious problem. Contact your doctor if you think you may have any of these common skin problems.

Acne



  • Commonly located on neck, shoulders, on the face, chest and upper back
  • Eruptions consisting of pimples, pimples, pimples or cysts and deep and painful nodules.
  • It can leave scars or darken the skin if left untreated

Cold sore


  • This Red and painful, fluid-filled blister that appears near the  lips and mouth .
  • The affected area will often peck or burn before the wound is visible
  • Epidemics can also be accompanied by mild flu-like symptoms, such as low fever, body aches and swollen lymph nodes.

Blister


  • It is characterized by a clear and watery area filled with fluid in the skin.
  • It can be less than 1 cm (vesicle) or greater than 1 cm (bubble) and can occur alone or in groups
  • It can be found anywhere in the body


Hives


  • Itching, high peaks that occur after exposure to an allergen
  • Red, warm and slightly painful to the touch.
  • It can be small, round and ring-shaped or large and randomly

Actinic keratosis

  • Generally less than 2 cm, about the size of an eraser
  • Patch for thick, flaky or crunchy skin
  • Appears in parts of the body very exposed to the sun (hands, arms, face, scalp and neck)
  • Usually pink but may have a brown, beige or gray base.

Rosacea


  • Chronic skin disease that goes through cycles of discoloration and relapse.
  • Outbreaks can be caused by spicy foods, alcoholic beverages, sunlight, stress and intestinal bacteria Helicobacter pylori
  • There are four subtypes of rosacea that cover a wide variety of symptoms.
  • Common symptoms include redness of the face, elevation, red bumps, redness of the face, dry skin and skin sensitivity.

Carbuncle


  • Red, painful and irritated bump under the skin
  • It may be accompanied by fever, body aches and fatigue.
  • It can cause scabs or leaks

Latex allergy


This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent attention may be needed.
  • A rash may occur minutes or hours after exposure to a latex product.
  • Hot flashes, itching and redness at the contact site may appear dry and crispy as a result of repeated latex exposures.
  • Latex particles in the air can cause cough, runny nose, sneezing and itchy eyes.
  • A severe allergy to latex can cause bloating and breathing difficulties.

Eczema

  • Yellow or white squamous spots that stand out
  • The affected areas may be red, itchy, fatty or fatty.
  • Hair loss may can occur in the area with the rash.


Psoriasis


  • Flaky, silver and clearly defined skin.
  • Commonly located in the scalp, elbows, knees and lower back
  • It can be irritating or asymptomatic.

Cellulitis



This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent attention may be needed.

  • Caused by bacteria or fungi that penetrate through a crack or dent in the skin
  • Red, painful and swollen skin with or without suppuration that spreads rapidly
  • Warm and soft to the touch
  • Fever, chills and red streaks from the rash may be a sign of serious infection that requires medical attention.

Measles


  • Fever,cough , loss of appetite, red  and watery eyes, sore throat and runny nose.
  • The rash extends from the face to the lower body three to five days after the first symptoms appear.
  • Small red spots with a blue-white center appear in the mouth..


Basal cell carcinoma


  • Elevated, firm and pale areas that may look like a scar.
  • Dome-shaped areas, pink or red, bright and pearly, can have a sunken center, like a crater
  • Visible blood vessels growing
  • Easy bleeding or suppurating pain that does not seem to heal, or heals and then reappears

Melanoma



  • The most severe form of skin cancer, most common in people with fair skin.
  • Mole on any part of the body with irregularly shaped edges, asymmetric shape and multiple colors.
  • Mole that has changed color or has grown over time.
  • Generally larger than a pencil eraser


Lupus

  • Symptoms include tiredness, headache, fever and swollen or painful joints.
  • Disc-shaped rash that does not itch and does not hurt
  • Scaly red spots or rings, most often on the shoulders, forearms, neck and upper torso, which get worse with sun exposure.
  • The hot red rash spreads over the cheeks and the bridge of the nose like butterfly wings and worsens in the sun.

Contact Dermatitis



  • It appears between a few hours and a few days after contact with an allergen.
  • The rash has visible edges and appears where your skin has touched the irritating substance.
  • Itchy, red, scaly or raw skin
  • Blisters that cry, ooze or become crispy

Vitiligo



  • Loss of pigment in the skin due to the autoimmune destruction of the cells that give skin color.
  • Focal pattern: loss of skin color in only a few small areas that can be fused
  • Segmental diagram: depigmentation of one side of the body
  • Premature degradation of the scalp and / or facial hair.

Wart


  • Caused by several different types of a virus called human papillomavirus (HPV)(human papillomavirus)
  • It can be found in the skin or mucous membranes.
  • It can happen alone or in a group
  • Contagious and can be transmitted to others

Chickenpox

  • Clusters of red, red, and fluid-filled vesicles at various stages of healing, throughout the body
  • The rashes are accompanied by fever, body aches, sore throat and loss of appetite.
  • Stay contagious until all the bulbs are covered with scab

Seborrheic Eczema



  • Yellow or white squamous spots that stand out
  • The affected areas may be red, itchy, fatty or fatty.
  • Hair loss may can occur in the area with the rash.


Keratosis pilaris



  • Common skin problem that is most often seen on the arms and legs, but can also occur on the face, buttocks and trunk.
  • Often disappears only before age 30
  • Areas of the skin that appear irregular, slightly red and look rough.
  • It can get worse in dry weather.


Ringworm




  • Circular flaky eruptions with high edge
  • The skin in the middle of the ring looks clear and healthy, and the edges of the ring can extend outward
  • pruritus

Melasma


  • Common condition of the skin that causes dark spots on the face and rarely on the neck, chest or arms
  • More common in pregnant women (chloasma) and in dark skin and sun
  • There are no other symptoms than skin discoloration.
  • You can leave it alone within a year or become permanent

Impetigo


  • Common in babies and children.
  • The rashes are often found around the mouth, chin and nose.
  • Blisters full of irritating and fluid rash that easily appears and forms a honey-colored crust



There are many temporary skin conditions, including contact dermatitis and keratosis pilaris.

Contact dermatitis

One of the most common occupational diseases is Contact dermatitis . The disease often results from contact with chemicals or other irritating substances. These substances can trigger a reaction that causes itching, redness and inflammation of the skin. Most cases of contact dermatitis are not serious, but they can cause itching. Topical creams and avoid the irritant are typical treatments.

Keratosis pilaris

Keratosis pilaris is a minor ailment that causes small bumps on the skin. These bumps usually form on the thighs or cheeks and upper arms,  They are usually red or white and do not hurt or itch. Treatment is not necessary, but medicated creams can improve the appearance of the skin.


Permanent skin disorders

Some chronic skin conditions are continuous  present from the birth, while some others appear suddenly later on in the life.

The cause of these disorders is not always known. Many permanent skin disorders have effective treatments that allow prolonged periods of remission. However, they are incurable and the symptoms may come back at any time. 

Examples of chronic skin conditions:

Rosacea, characterized by small red bumps full of pus on the face
psoriasis, which causes scaly patches, itching and dryness
vitiligo, which produces large patches of irregular skin

Skin disorders in children

Skin disorders are common in children. Children may face the same skin problems as adults. Babies and young children may also have skin problems related to diapers. Since children are more frequently exposed to germs and other children, they can also develop skin disorders that rarely occur in adults. Many skin problems in children disappear with age, but children can also inherit permanent skin disorders. In most cases, doctors can treat skin disorders in children with topical creams, medicinal lotions or specific medications.

Common skin conditions in children include:
  • eczema
  • diaper rash
  • seborrheic dermatitis
  • chickenpox
  • measles
  • warts
  • acne
  • Fifth illness
  • urticaria
  • tub
  • rashes from bacterial or fungal infections
  • rash due to allergic reactions

Symptoms of skin disorders

Skin conditions have a wide range of symptoms. The symptoms on your skin that appear due to common problems are not always the result of a skin condition. These symptoms may include blisters of new shoes or rubbing caused by tight pants. However, skin problems without an obvious cause may indicate the presence of a skin problem that requires treatment.

Skin irregularities that are usually symptoms of a skin condition include:

  • red or white raised bumps
  • rash, which can be painful or irritating
  • flaky or rough skin
  • skin that peels
  • ulcers
  • open wounds or injuries
  • dry and cracked skin
  • discolored skin spots
  • lumps, warts or other skin growths
  • changes in color or size of moles
  • loss of skin pigment
  • excessive rinse



Causes of skin disorders

Common known causes of skin disorders include:
  • bacteria trapped in the pores of the skin and hair follicles
  • fungi, parasites or microorganisms that live on the skin
  • virus
  • a weakened immune system
  • contact with allergens, irritants or infected skin of another person
  • genetic factors
  • disease that affects the thyroid, the immune system, the kidneys and other body systems
Many health problems and lifestyle factors can also lead to certain skin disorders. Some skin conditions do not have a known cause.

Inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease is a term in the group of intestinal diseases that prolongs inflammation of the digestive tract. Such intestinal diseases often cause skin problems.

Medications used to treat these diseases can cause certain skin conditions, such as:

  • skin tags
  • anal fissures
  • stomatitis
  • vasculitis
  • vitiligo
  • allergic eczema

Diabetes

Many people with diabetes have a skin problem due to their condition at some time. Some of these skin conditions only affect diabetics. 
Others occur more frequently in people with diabetes because the disease increases the risk of infection and blood flow problems. 

Skin conditions related to diabetes include:

  • bacterial infections, such as boils, styes and folliculitis
  • fungal infections, such as athlete's foot, yeast infections  and ringworm
  • acanthosis nigricans
  • diabetic blisters
  • diabetic dermopathy
  • digital sclerosis

Lupus

Lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can damage the skin, joints or internal organs of the body. Common skin problems caused by lupus include:
  • round lesions on the face and head
  • thick and scaly red lesions
  • Red ring-shaped lesions on parts of the body exposed to the sun
  • flat rash on all the body and face and that looks like a sunburn
  • red, purple or black spots on the fingers and toes
  • mouth and nose sores
  • small red spots on the legs

Pregnancy

Pregnancy causes significant changes in hormonal levels that can cause skin problems. Pre-existing skin problems may get worse or change  during pregnancy. Most skin problems that occur during pregnancy disappear after the baby is born. Others require medical attention during pregnancy.

Common skin conditions caused by pregnancy include:

  • Stretch marks
  • melasma
  • pemphigoid
  • pruritic urticarial papules and plaques
  • eczema

Stress

Stress can cause hormonal imbalances that can trigger or aggravate skin disorders. Stress-related skin problems include:
  • eczema
  • psoriasis
  • acne
  • rosacea
  • ichthyosis
  • vitiligo
  • urticaria
  • seborrheic dermatitis
  • alopecia areata

Sun

The sun can cause many skin disorders. Some are common and safe, while others are rare or life threatening. To treat it properly, it is important to know if the sun is causing or aggravating your skin disorder.

Sun exposure can cause or aggravate the following conditions:

  • moles
  • the wrinkles
  • sun stroke
  • actinic keratosis
  • skin cancer, carcinoma and melanoma including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell 
  • photosensitivity


Treating skin disorders

Many skin problems are treatable. Common treatment methods for skin conditions include:

  • antihistamines
  • creams and medicinal ointments
  • antibiotics
  • vitamin or steroid injections
  • laser therapy
  • specific prescription medications
All skin disorders do not respond to treatment. Some conditions disappear without treatment. People with permanent skin problems often experience periods of severe symptoms. Sometimes people can force incurable conditions to remission. However most the skin conditions reappear due to certain triggers, such as illness or stress.

You can often treat temporary and aesthetic skin conditions with:

  • medicated makeup
  • over-the-counter skin care products
  • good hygiene practices
  • small lifestyle adjustments, such as some dietary changes
  • Prevent skin disorders.



Preventing skin disorders

Some skin conditions cannot be avoided, including genetic diseases and some skin problems caused by other diseases. However, it is possible to prevent certain skin disorders.

Follow these tips to prevent infectious skin disorders:

  • Wash your hands quick often with soap and little warm water.
  • Avoid sharing kitchen utensils and glasses with other people.
  • Avoid direct contact with the skin of other infected people.
  • Clean objects in public spaces, such as gym equipment, before using them.
  • Do not share personal items such as blankets, hair brushes or swimsuits.
  • Sleep at least seven hours every night.
  • Drink a lot of water.
  • Avoid excessive physical or emotional stress.
  • Eat a nutritious diet.
  • Get vaccinated against infectious skin conditions, such as chicken pox.
  • Non-infectious skin conditions, such as acne and atopic dermatitis, can sometimes be prevented. 
  • Prevention techniques vary according to the conditions. 

Here are some tips to prevent some non-infectious skin disorders:

  • Wash your face with a mild cleanser and water every day.
  • Use a moisturizer.
  • Avoid environmental and food allergens.
  • Avoid contact with corrosive chemicals or other irritants.
  • Sleep at least seven hours every night.
  • Drink a lot of water.
  • Eat healthy
  • Protect your skin from excessive cold, wind and heat .
Learning more about proper skin care and treatment for skin disorders can be very important for skin health. Some conditions require the attention of a doctor, while you can talk safely with others at home. You should get more information about your symptoms or conditions and consult your doctor to determine the best treatment methods.

 Encapsulated fonts

Medical Review of the University of Illinois April 16, 2016 - Written by Katherine Brind'Amour

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